The Core of Teaching (Chapter-4 of ESSAYS ON GITA by Sri Aurobindo)
Sankhya and Yoga (Chapter-8 of ESSAYS on GITA by Shri Aurobindo)
“The weakness of the human heart wants only fair and comforting truths or in their absence pleasant fables; it will not have the truth in its entirety because there there is much that is not clear and pleasant and comfortable but hard to understand and harder to bear” (Essays on the Gita pg 381)
The Human Disciple (Chapter-3 of ESSAYS ON GITA by Sri Aurobindo
The first step is Karmayoga, the selfless sacrifice of works, and here the Gita’s insistence is on action. The second is Jnana-yoga, the self-realisation and knowledge of the true nature of the self and the world, and here the insistence is on knowledge, but the sacrifice of works continues and the path of works becomes one with but does not disappear into the path of knowledge. The last step is Bhaktiyoga, adoration and seeking of the supreme Self as the Divine Being, and here the insistence is on devotion; but the knowledge is not subordinated, only raised, vitalised and fulfilled, and still the sacrifice of works continues; the double path becomes the triune way of knowledge, works and devotion. And the fruit of the sacrifice, the one fruit still placed before the seeker, is attained, Union with the divine Being and oneness with the supreme divine Nature.” (Essays on Gita pg 34-35.)
“Ancient thought accepted this starting point so far as it could see it by scrutiny of the universe. The old Upanishads saw it very clearly and phrased it with an uncomprising thoroughness which will have nothing to do with any honeyed glosses or optimistic scuttling of the truth. Hunger that is Death, they said, is the creator and master of this world, and they figured vital existence in the image of the Horse of the sacrifice. Matter they described by a name which means ordinarily food and they said, we call it food because it is devoured and devours creatures. The eater eating is eaten; this is the formula of the material world.” (Essays on the Gita, pg 40-41)has written an excellent essay on this - Our Demand and Need from the Gita, from the book Essays on Gita. He beautifully points out how different commentators have conveniently used the Gita to propagate specific schools of thought like Advaitam, Dvaitam. He goes on to say that the Gita is a far more powerful synthesis that continues to be of great practical utility for humanity.